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    CHRONOLOGY


July 1822 The West African nations of Ivory Coast, Liberia and Sierra Leone were part of a unified territory that was purchased in 1822 by U.S. charities to resettle former slaves and free blacks.
July 1847 The Americo-Liberians, as the settlers were called, established the Republic of Liberia in 1847.
1847-1910 The settlers lost almost half of Liberia's territory to France and the United Kingdom.
1943 William Tubman elected president.
1971 Tubman dies and is succeeded by William Tolbert Jr.
March 1973 Formation of the Movement for Justice in Africa (MOJA).
1978 Formation of Progressive Alliance of Liberia (PAL).
April 1979 More than 40 people are killed in riots following a proposed increase in the price of rice.
April 1980 Master Sergeant Samuel Doe stages military coup. Tolbert and more than twelve of his aides are killed. A People's Redemption Council headed by Doe suspends the constitution and assumes full power.
November 1983 General Thomas Quiwonkpa and close allies, Prince Johnson and Charles Taylor, flee the country. Following their departure, a raid is led into Nimba County by supporters of Thomas Quiwonkpa in an attempt to overthrow President Doe.
August 1984 Government forces invade the university campus following accusations that individuals, including Amos Sawyer, were involved in attempts to bring down the government.
October 1984 Doe's regime allows return of political parties following pressure from the United States and other creditors.
October 1985 Doe wins rigged presidential elections.
November 1985 Attempted coup fails and leads to reprisals against the Gio and Mano. Quiwonkpa is captured and murdered.
January 1986 Inauguration of Doe Government.
December 1989 National Patriotic Front of Liberia (NPFL) led by Charles Taylor begins an uprising against the Doe government.
June 1990 Interfaith Mediation Committee meets on Liberian conflict.
June 1990 Liberian peace talks in Freetown, Sierra Leone.
August 1990 Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) sends peacekeeping force to Liberia.
September 1990 President Doe abducted, tortured and killed by Prince Johnson, leader of the Independent National Patriotic Front of Liberia (INPFL), en route to ECOMOG headquarters in Monrovia.
November 1990 Bamako Cease-fire signed between Armed Forces of Liberia (AFL), INPFL and National Patriotic Front of Liberia following an extraordinary session of Economic Community of West African States heads of state. Interim Government of National Unity (IGNU) formally installed with Amos Sawyer as its president.
December 1990 Banjul Agreement between the Armed Forces of Liberia, INPFL and the National Patriotic Front of Liberia to convene a national conference in 60 days to reconstitute and consolidate IGNU with representatives from all factions.
January 1991 NPFL establish their National Patriotic Reconstruction Assembly Government (NPRAG) in Gbarnga.
February 1991 Signing of Lomé Agreement, which specifies the modalities for ECOMOG monitoring of cease-fire implementation. Disarmament is deferred until after reconstitution of IGNU.
March 1991 All-Liberia National Conference fails to take the peace process forward as Taylor's presidential plans are thwarted and National Patriotic Front of Liberia resorts to wrecking tactics. INPFL leadership irrevocably split over degree of collaboration with IGNU, ECOMOG and National Patriotic Front of Liberia.
March 1991 The Revolutionary United Front of Sierra Leone launches attack into Sierra Leone from Liberia with fighters from Liberia and Burkina Faso.
May 1991 United Liberation Movement of Liberia for Democracy (ULIMO) is formed in Sierra Leone and Guinea by ex-AFL fighters and Krahn and Mandingo supporters of the late President Doe. ULIMO forces enter western Liberia from Sierra Leone to attack National Patriotic Front of Liberia.
June 1991 Reconciliation in Yamoussoukro, Côte d'Ivoire between Sawyer and Taylor, brokered by President Houphouët-Boigny, with the involvement of the International Negotiations Network (INN) of former U.S. President Jimmy Carter.
September 1991 NPFL agrees to disarm troops, but there are disagreements over weapons control with Interim Government. ECOMOG troops deploy outside Monrovia for the first time and ULIMO gains in western Liberia.
October 1991 Peace plan signed in Yamoussoukro to begin disarmament process.
April 1992 Sierra Leonean government is toppled by under-paid and disgruntled army officers, but RUF insurgency continues.
May 1992 UN Security Council launches appeal to factions to respect Yamoussoukro Agreement.
July 1992 ECOWAS gives Charles Taylor 30-day ultimatum to disarm fighters as agreed in Yamoussoukro.
October 1992 NPFL launches an all-out assault, codenamed Operation Octopus, on Economic Community of West African States forces in Monrovia from the facilities of the Firestone rubber plantation near Harbel. ECOMOG abandons its peace-keeping stance for greater combatant role, rearms the Armed Forces of Liberia and openly supports ULIMO. Both commence heavy bombing of National Patriotic Front of Liberia-held areas. Former U.S. President Jimmy Carter comments publicly on ECOMOG partiality.
November 1992 UN Security Council imposes mandatory arms embargo on all factions.
May 1993 ECOWAS finally imposes economic sanctions on National Patriotic Front of Liberia-held areas.
June 1993 600 civilians, mainly displaced Liberians, are killed in an armed attack on the Firestone plantation near Harbel. A panel of inquiry appointed by the UN Secretary General attributes the attack to units of the Armed Forces of Liberia.
July 1993 At the invitation of the UN, ECOWAS and the Organisation of African Unity (OAU), all the warring factions go to Geneva for peace talks. Geneva Cease-fire is signed between the National Patriotic Front of Liberia, ULIMO and IGNU.
July 1993 Cotonou Accord is formally signed between the same parties. This accord reschedules disarmament and encampment, and provides for a tripartite Liberia National Transitional Government (LNTG), headed by a five-man Council of State, to replace IGNU once disarmament commences. LNTG leaders are ineligible to contest presidential elections in February 1994.
September 1993 The Liberia Peace Council (LPC) emerges with support of Armed Forces of Liberia and engages the National Patriotic Front of Liberia around rubber and timber exporting zones in south-eastern Liberia. The United Nations Observer Mission in Liberia (UNOMIL) is established, the first UN peacekeeping operation undertaken in co-operation with a regional organisation. ECOMOG has primary responsibility for ensuring implementation of the 1993 Cotonou Accord, but UNOMIL is authorised to monitor and verify the cease-fire, the arms embargo, and the encampment, disarmament and demobilisation of combatants.
September 1994 Akosombo Peace Agreement signed in Ghana under Economic Community of West African States between National Patriotic Front of Liberia, ULIMO and Armed Forces of Liberia. Agreement planned for immediate cease-fire and the setting up of a joint Council of State composed of five members appointed by the three factions and civil society. General elections to take place in October 1995.

Close allies of Taylor, Samuel Dokie, Laveli Supuwood and Tom Woewiyu, break away from National Patriotic Front of Liberia to create Central Revolutionary Council-NPFL (CRC-NPFL).

December 1994 Peace pact signed in Accra (Ghana) by all warring factions. The leaders agree to the establishment of safe havens and buffer zones and holding of elections in November 1995. A cease-fire is called on 28 December 1994. The parties also agree to demobilisation and reintegration programs.
January 1995 ECOWAS heads of state attend mini summit on the formation of the Liberian Council of State. All Liberian warring factions attending peace talks had accepted, in principle, a proposal by the heads of Ghana, Guinea, Burkina Faso and Côte d'Ivoire to expand the numbers of nominees of the Council of State from five to six in order that the Armed Forces of Liberia and the Coalition forces can be separately represented.
August 1995 Peace agreement signed in Abuja (Nigeria). Liberia's main warring factions agree to enforce cease-fire, disarmament and elections within one year. Agree to halting of hostilities and installation of Council of State within fourteen days from when the agreement was signed on 19 August.
April 1996 Factional fighting resumes and spreads to Monrovia. ULIMO-K and National Patriotic Front of Liberia collaborate to capture ULIMO-J leader Roosevelt Johnson after the Transitional Government of Wilton Sankawulo accuses him of murder. The attempt to arrest Johnson sparks 6 April fighting that causes the death of over 3,000 people and the destruction of Monrovia.
August 1996 Supplement to the Abuja Accords is signed by warring factions, formally known as Abuja II Accords. Agreement also includes provision that ECOMOG forces assist in the restructuring of the national army. Elections were to be held in May 1997.
August 1996 ECOWAS peacekeepers initiate disarmament program, clear land mines and reopen roads, allowing refugees to start returning.
November 1996 The Government of Sierra Leone and the RUF sign the Abidjan Peace Agreement.
January 1997 Disarmament program is declared a success.
May 1997 President Ahmed Tejan Kabbah of Sierra Leone is overthrown in a coup led by junior officers calling itself the Armed Forces Revolutionary Council (AFRC). Thousands flee to Liberia. Nigerian forces leave Liberia for Sierra Leone.
July 1997 Presidential and legislative elections are held. Charles Taylor wins a landslide, and his National Patriotic Party wins a majority of seats in the National Assembly. International observers declare the elections free and fair.
August 1997 Taylor is inaugurated as president of Liberia.
September 1997 UNOMIL ends its mandate following completion of the DDR process and holding of national elections.
October 1997 In negotiation in Conakry between the Armed Forces Revolutionary Council junta of Sierra Leone and Economic Community of West African States, the Armed Forces Revolutionary Council agrees to restore the government of President Kabbah within six months.
November 1997 Taylor forces murder his ally-turned-opponent, Samuel Dokie, and his family.
March 1998 President Kabbah is reinstated after Nigerian troops battle with Armed Forces Revolutionary Council and RUF forces in Freetown for over one month.
September 1998 Clash between Taylor forces and ULIMO-J fighters at Camp Johnson Road. Thirteen Krahn supporters of ULIMO are imprisoned. Other political opponents are charged with treason.
November 1998 Former National Patriotic Front of Liberia fighters patrol Liberia's border with Sierra Leone.
December 1998 ECOMOG is forced to leave Liberia after embarrassing showdown with President Taylor over his rejection of the Abuja accord provision that made ECOMOG responsible for training a new national army.
January 1999 AFRC/RUF forces re-enter Sierra Leone’s capital Freetown by force. They inflict major destruction and widespread atrocities. Ghana and Nigeria accused Liberia of supporting the RUF in Sierra Leone. Britain and the U.S. threaten to suspend international aid to Liberia.
April 1999 Rebels calling themselves Justice Coalition of Liberia (JCL), thought to have crossed Guinea, attack the Liberian town of Voinjama, Lofa County.
June 1999 Allegations that Taylor's security forces were involved in the death of the Liberian Vice President Enoch Dogolea.
July 1999 Sierra Leone government and RUF sign Lomé Peace Accord.
August 1999 The Government of Liberia indicts an opposition leader residing abroad, Ellen Johnson-Sirleaf, for treason for alleged ties to armed dissidents operating in Lofa County.
October 1999 UN Security Council Resolution 1270 establishes United Nations Mission in Sierra Leone (UNAMSIL).
October 1999 JCL attack Lofa County again and take Kolahun and Foya along the Sierra Leone border.
December 1999 RUF military commander Sam Bockarie and at least 200 of his supporters take refuge in Liberia. President Taylor denies that the Government is training the RUF fighters or that it has been supplying them with arms. He claims that the Economic Community of West African States leadership permitted these arrangements in order to advance the implementation of the Sierra Leone peace process.
February 2000 Various groups of Liberian dissidents come together in Sierra Leone to form the Liberians United for Reconciliation and Democracy (LURD).
April 2000 Former Nigerian ECOMOG commander and chief of staff of the Sierra Leone Army, Maxwell Khobe, dies from battle wounds.
May 2000 British forces intervene to salvage Sierra Leone peace process as 500 UN peacekeepers are held hostage. Foday Sankoh, RUF leader, is captured and imprisoned.
May 2000 ECOWAS appoints Charles Taylor to ensure that the RUF complies with the terms of the Lomé peace agreement and frees the UN hostages.
June 2000 British government asks European Union to stop aid of U.S.$42million to Liberia.
June 2000 President Taylor is instrumental in release of UN peacekeepers.
July 2000 The U.S. threatens to impose sanctions on Liberia unless it cuts ties with the RUF.
August 2000 UN Security Council passes Resolution 1315 on the establishment of a Special Court to indict those that “bear the greatest responsibility” for serious violations of international humanitarian law, which could include Taylor.
September 2000 Coalition of RUF rebels, Liberian force allied to Charles Taylor and Guinean dissidents launches offensive against rebels in the north. Liberia accuses Guinean troops of shelling border villages. LURD retaliates. Fighting continues into January 2001.
November 2000 Sierra Leone's government and the RUF agree to a cease-fire and to resume the peace process in Abuja, Nigeria.
November 2000 Former civil war combatants ransack the offices of the Centre for Democratic Empowerment (CEDE) and beat up former interim president Amos Sawyer and the organisation's executive director, Conmany Wesseh. Sawyer and Wesseh leave the country.
December 2000 UN report on Sierra Leone details extensive support for RUF by Charles Taylor government.
January 2001 LURD invades Lofa County.
January 2001 UN Security Council begins discussion on draft sanction resolution against Liberia.
February 2001 Charles Taylor announces “policy of disengagement” with the RUF and the departure of Sam Bockarie from Liberia.
March 2001 UN Security Council adopts Resolution 1343 imposing “smart” sanctions against Charles Taylor's government, but delays for two months following request by France and West African states.
May 2001 UN Security Council Resolution 1343 re-imposes arms embargo to punish Charles Taylor for trading weapons for diamonds with the RUF. The sanctions also include travel ban.
May 2001 The Sierra Leone government and RUF meet again in Abuja, Nigeria to review the Cease-fire agreement signed in November 2001. The RUF agrees to return to the disarmament process.
June 2001 The European Union suspends U.S.$42 million in aid to Liberia.
August 2001 Foreign ministers and security chiefs of the three Mano River countries begin a series of talks, continuing into September, on border security issues.
November 2001 LURD begins a new offensive. Voinjama falls to it in December, as well as Valhun, Foya and Bopulu.
December 2001 The Armed Forces of Liberia and RUF launch damaging attack against LURD. Killing of Emmett Ross, Charles Taylor's deputy minister in the Ministry of National Security, during fighting.
December 2001 Senior Gambians, including Gouson Drane (ATU general) and Mohammed Sheriff (personnel director of the ministry of internal affairs), jailed after coup attempt.
January 2002 LURD defeats RUF, Armed Forces of Liberia and Guinean dissident troops at Kolahun. By mid-February LURD troops are just 44 km from Monrovia, at Klay Junction.
January 2002 President Kabbah declares ten-year civil war over in Sierra Leone.
January 2002 UNHCR reports that up to 8,500 Liberian refugees cross into Sierra Leone.
February 2002 Charles Taylor declares a state of emergency in Liberia.
February 2002 Long awaited meeting between of the Mano River Union Heads of States takes place in Rabat, Morocco. The three presidents agree to work together to end years of cross-border insurgencies, and to promote “peace, understanding and good-neighbourliness”.
March 2002 Charles Taylor releases 21 political prisoners, thirteen of whom were linked to the 18 September 1998 Camp Johnson Road conflict.
March 2002 ECOWAS-sponsored conference on political dialogue with the Government of Liberia, civil society and opposition groups is held in Abuja, Nigeria. The LURD is invited but refuses to come, arguing that the agenda and the invitation list are biased. Its suspicions were raised when Economic Community of West African States Executive Secretary Mohammed Ibn Chambas ruled out discussion of an interim government and condemned the insurgency's use of force.


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